It’s the pure and natural ingredients and their combination in perfect proportions that give InfiniteAloe® Skin Care the ability to soothe, smooth keep your skin soft.
When you study the history and science behind our ingredients you will understand why we have been so successful and why so many men and women swear by our skin care formula.
Search for an individual ingredient or read the list from top to bottom. Ingredients are listed in the order of the amount they appear in our cream – from the most abundant ingredient – organic Aloe Vera - to the least abundant of the key elements in our skin care formula.
Organic Aloe Vera
Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis Miller) is the primary, most abundant ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care and the essence of its smooth and creamy effectiveness. Aloe Vera is high in vitamins including C, A, E and B, and minerals including Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium. It feeds your skin with eight life-giving enzymes, 20 powerful amino acids. Organic Aloe Vera has sterols of potent anti-inflammatory agents as well as strong saponins that act as antiseptics. Numerous studies document the wound healing, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating effects of Aloe Vera. It is vital for all types of skin care and particularly beneficial in the treatment of painful, difficult and/or challenging skin conditions such as acne, eczema and psoriasis. (Ref.1-4)
Organic Aloe Barbadensis Miller is the Aloe gel we use. It is the finest quality Aloe Vera for use in skin care, standing out far above more than 200 varieties of Aloe in quality. Saponins are known to be particularly helpful in pain relief. There are many reports that saponins elevate the body’s production of cortisone. Some (though incomplete) studies indicate it may be of benefit in treating arthritis, eczema and psoriasis for this reason. Numerous studies document the wound healing, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating effects of Aloe Vera. Aloe Vera is essential for all types of skin care and particularly beneficial in the treatment of painful, difficult or challenging skin conditions such as acne, eczema and psoriasis.
Aloe Vera is rich with mannan, a substance believed to improve immune system functioning and to provide anti-bacterial properties (Ref.5), so is well known to aid in keeping infections down. At the same time it penetrates deep to the lower levels of the skin to regenerate new healthy skin.
Aloe Vera penetrates many layers of the skin with healing nutrients, it has been validated in scientific studies as a workable treatment for small wounds and burns. Compared to an average recovery time of 50 days from burn wounds, animals treated with aloe recover an average of 20 days faster. (Ref.6)
Aloe Vera is also well known as a healing moisturizer. A certified evaluation of Aloe Vera and its use for treating dry and irritated skin showed significant improvement was made within a matter of days through topical application of Aloe Vera. (Ref.7)
When you use InfiniteAloe® Skin Care you can be sure you are using remedies that are known and trusted as well as validated by modern science to bring new life to normal skin and soothing relief whenever difficult or dry skin conditions arise.
Water that is in a mineral-free state due to the removal of ions, used as a moisturizer
Is a palm or coconut oil based softening agent used to moisturize and known to enhance silkiness of skin.
Cetyl Alcohol is a natural thickening agent, Cetyl Alcohol is used as a thickener, to hold moisture, to soften and to carry other ingredients, derived naturally from palm oil.
Glycerin (Kelp source)
Natural glycerin is a colorless, sweet tasting liquid that comes from the fats involved in the soap making process. When diluted in water, Glycerin will soften your skin. Glycerin tends to draw moisture from the air and hold it in the skin. The Glycerin in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care is used to attract moisture into your skin.
Glyceryl Sterate is derived from oils of plants and is used as an emollient to increase the moisture of the skin, helping the skin to feel softer, smoother and reduce roughness, cracking and irritation.
Cetyl Lactate is a natural compound formed from cetyl alcohol and lactic acid. Lactic acid is manufactured by a bacterial fermentation of milk products such as yogurt, sugars and corn. It occurs naturally in the skin by the muscles during exercise. It helps to exfoliate the skin and when combined with cetyl alcohol it becomes a compound that can help the skin retain moisture. Cetyl lactate is a common ingredient in lipstick, lip balm, sunscreen and moisturizers for these reasons.
Hydrolyzed Collagen is a gelatin that is the main structural protein making up 70% of the body’s connective tissue. Scientific discoveries show the aging process takes place as collagen becomes inflexible, strained, dry, and wrinkled due to overexposure to sunlight, chemicals and even some foods. Hydrolyzed Collagen has been broken down using enzymes. Hydrolyzed Collagen Protein is often used as a protein source in body building products, to promote joint health and helps athletes recover from sports related injuries. Some European studies have shown Hydrolyzed Collagen protein benefits arthritis sufferers, suppresses bone degeneration and helps speed recovery from injuries. It is included in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care to help build on the collagen already in the skin. Hydrolyzed Collagen can also help skin to look younger by providing structure to depleted skin.
Many creams and skin preparations contain MSM or Methyl-Sulfonyl-Methane, a sulfur known for potent healing capabilities with regards to skin softening and moisturizing. When used in skin lotion, MSM feeds the collagen and elastin tissue formation that allows your skin to hold its firmness. MSM also promotes skin regeneration, bringing new softness, as well as relief for very dry, itchy, cracked skin conditions.
Eczema and psoriasis sufferers should also know that MSM is a vital element to aid in pain reduction. Earl L. Mindell, R.Ph., Ph.D., states “MSM is fast becoming a leader in helping pain sufferers. It is a safe, natural and effective solution for many types of pain and inflammatory conditions.”
Thioctic Acid (Alpha Lipoic Acid)
A naturally occurring compound that is synthesized in our bodies in small amounts (it is also produced by plants and animals.) The scientific community has been very interested in the potential therapeutic benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid, according to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University. It has been extensively studied for its role as an effective antioxidant (Ref: 25)
Zea Mays (Corn Oil)
Zea Mays is corn or Maize. This sweet corn produces oil that is safe and natural for softening skin and giving it silky, creamy feel without leaving it too oily. It is high in Allantoin that helps to heal wounds and skin irritations. It tends to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue, which why it is often found in acne medicines, sun care and anti-aging products. Allantoin such as found in corn oil, is also helpful to moisturize and treat dry skin.
Vitamin E (Tocopheryl Acetate)
Many foods provide vitamin E including nuts, seeds, vegetable oils and green leafy vegetables, but Wheat Germ Oil is one of its most potent known sources. Studies have shown the workings of Vitamin E in the bloodstream to lower cholesterol and help prevent blood clots. A study of nurses found heart disease incidence was lowered by 30-40% in those with the highest intake of vitamin E. The primary benefit of vitamin E in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care is its use as an antioxidant to counter free radicals that can harm and make skin age early and thus it acts as a strong anti-aging solution.
Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone)
Many studies have shown Coenzyme Q10 is a superb antioxidant that can counteract free radical damage. Coenzyme Q10 is found in many foods including fish, liver, eggs, spinach, broccoli, peanuts and whole grains. Because it is an enzyme, overheating easily destroys its beneficial structure. Its topical use on the skin provides protection against depletion of the cell membranes and thus helps dramatically reduce appearance of wrinkles. It also helps to prevent damage to the collagen and elastin production process making it a powerful anti-aging ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
Vitamin A (Retinyl Palmitate)
Food Sources of Vitamin A include liver, carrots, sweet potato pumpkin and spinach.
Vitamin A is vital to the repair and growth of epithelial cells of the skin. In fact, a prolonged Vitamin A deficiency can lead to very dry skin. Because of its important function in forming healthy skin, Vitamin A has been an important factor in treating skin disorders and is an essential nutrient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
Allantoin is a natural botanical substance often derived from Comfrey that helps to heal dry skin as well as damaged or chapped skin by sealing in moisture. It is used to promote wound healing and tissue repair including the treatment of skin ulcers, wounds, burns, sunburns, acne and skin eruptions, eczema and psoriasis because it softens skin and protects living skin cells.
Allantoin has been demonstrated to promote new cell growth and repair tissue damage when applied topically.
This peptide or amino acid compound stimulates the natural process of the skin to peel away dead skin cells and regenerate new ones. It is produced from lecithin, which is a fatty substance found in plants and egg yolk and the alpha amino acid, norleucine. This natural exfoliation helps to rejuvenate the complexion, which is why it is a key ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
A naturally occurring substance that facilitates synthesis needed for healthy cell membranes. It has been researched as a drug for use in age related decline and has been shown to reduce decline from age related cognitive ability and memory. It was also found to reduce the lipofuscin (cellular pigment consisting of molecular waste) that tends to occur in the cells of older people and is considered to be part of the aging process. It has been extensively used in skincare products for nearly two decades. DMAE is one of the only substances found to cause skin tightening, although the reasons for this are unknown.
Grape Seed Oil, (Vitis Vinifera)
Europeans have known and used Grape seed oil for centuries, as a wonderful byproduct of wine.
Grape seed oil is rich in flavonoids. These are phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties. (Antioxidants safeguard the cells against damage by unstable oxidant molecules called free radicals.) Many researchers have reported grape seed oil to contain more beneficial phytochemicals than Vitamin C and E. It is well known to improve circulation and reduce inflammation.
The flavonoids in grape seed oil are called “procyanidolic oligomers” (PCOs.) Beyond their antioxidant powers, PCOs are thought to improve blood circulation and help strengthen blood vessels. Flavonoids also inhibit allergic reactions. These factors help to fight against uncomfortable skin problems encountered with eczema and very dry skin.
Grape Seed Oil is of particular value as part of a moisturizing treatment because it brings powerful cellular rebuilding properties deep below the skin’s surface to moisturize and aid in protecting skin tissue.
Rose Hips Oil, (Rose Canina Fruit)
For thousands of years roses have been prized over the world for their beautiful blossoms as well as their medicinal qualities. Rose hips are high in Vitamin C (Ref.11) and this is one reason why rose hips oil is very nourishing to the skin. Its regenerative properties as well as its potency as a moisturizer have made Rosehips oil a vital component in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care and recommended as part of a well-rounded treatment for skin disorders such as eczema or psoriasis.
Rose hips are very high in nutrients that are powerful antioxidants. (Ref.12) Antioxidants speed the healing process because they neutralize harmful compounds that destroy cell membranes and even DNA (genetic material). These wonderful nutrients help the skin regenerate.
Rosehips oil was scientifically studied for the first time in 1983 by a team of researchers from the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacology at the University of Concepcion in Chile. During the two-year study on 180 patients with surgical, injury and post-burn scars as well as evidence of premature aging, it was found that Rosehips Oil produced an effective regenerative action on the skin.
Rosehips oil pressed from wild roses contains 77 percent of the fatty acids that are known to regenerate the skin cells, moisturize dry skin and repair damaged tissue. According to Dermatologist Nicholas Perricone, M.D., author of The Perricone Prescription, if your diet is lacking these essential fatty acids, the skin will dehydrate and fail to heal properly.
Dr. Hans Harbst, a surgeon and radiologist practicing in Chile has extensive experience in the application of Rosehips Oil for healing skin alterations, especially secondary dermatitis, which can take place as a result of radiotherapy. Dr Harbst explains, "I work with many patients who have undergone surgery and therefore have scars; subsequent radiation causes secondary reactions to the skin such as inflammation, darkening and dermatitis. This presents an aesthetic problem for patients, but the application of Rosehips Oil has produced faster healing of these lesions.” (Ref.13)
These are just some of the reasons that InfiniteAloe® Skin Care contains Rosehips Oil and part of the reason why so many women and men love the relief it brings to dehydrated, dry or even inflamed skin.
Apricot Kernel Oil, (Prunus Armeniaca)
The ancients discovered the healing power of apricot kernels and used them in skin preparations and for healing wounds. The Romans, who dedicated it to their Goddess of Love, regarded it as food-medicine. The Chinese apricot kernel oil preparation, “Apricot Gold,” is believed to prolong life. Apricot kernel oil has been cultivated for more than 1500 years by the Hunzas of Northern Pakistan.
Apricot kernel oil is known to be high in vitamins A, C, E and potassium. It is used in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care because of its moisturizing and conditioning properties as well as its nutrient-rich revitalizing care. Apricot kernel oil has 30% unsaturated essential fatty acid content. According to the AMA's committee on Coetaneous Health, it helps make the skin feel softer and smoother, reduces roughness, cracking and irritation.
Wheat Germ Oil, (Triticum Vulgare)
Wheat Germ oil is derived from the wheat kernel before the milling process and is nutrient rich with Vitamins A, B, D, and especially E.
The super-high Vitamin E content in Wheat Germ Oil helps repair and revitalize skin by minimizing the depletion of natural oils. In his New Herb Bible (Fireside, 1992), Earl Mindell advises people with dry skin to use soaps containing wheat germ oil to maintain the natural, protective oils in the skin. Vitamin E is also an anti-oxidant that protects the skin from degeneration by preventing the destructive oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the membranes of the cells.
Wheat germ oil is also very high in Linoleic Acid (55-60%.) In addition to its moisture retaining properties, Linoleic acid is necessary to maintain skin cell integrity. Because Wheat Germ Oil can penetrate many layers deep into the skin to repair damage, reduce moisture loss and sooth the skin, it is an essential ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care, beneficial to keep skin looking young and to care for dry or difficult skin conditions such as acne or eczema when they arise.
Sodium Hyaluronate (Hyaluronic Acid)
Sodium hyaluronate is the key water maintaining substances in human skin. Bad living environment and aging can cause the decrease of HA content in skin, and as a result the water maintaining ability of the skin is weakened and the akin looks dry and rough .One of the main causes of skin senility is also the decrease of polysaccharides, such as HA. The special structure characteristic of HA makes it has high moisturizing and water content reguating function and its solution has high viscoelasticity and lubricity. When HA solution is applied on the surface of skin, it can form an air permeable layer and keep the skin moist and smooth. Small molecular weight HA can penetrate into dermis layer, fully combine with water, promote skin blood microcirculation and nutrient absorption and maintain normal metabolism, and as a result it plays a role of wrinkle removing, look improving and health protecting.
Yucca (Schidigera) Extract
Yucca was considered of great value to the Southwestern American Indians who used it to treat skin disorders, skin disruptions and disease. It was used in salves and poultices for sores and inflammation. It has long been used as a treatment to purify the blood and as an antibacterial, anti-fungal ointment.
Yucca is rich with saponins. Saponins are known to be particularly helpful in pain relief. There are many reports that saponins elevate the body’s production of cortisone. Some (though incomplete) studies indicate it may be of benefit in treating arthritis, eczema and psoriasis for this reason.
As Peter R Cheeke, Ph.D. and Professor of Comparative Nutrition explains that researchers have only scratched the surface on the many important and useful functions of saponins. Saponins are already known for their essential anti-fungal and antibacterial as well as emollient effects. Dr. Cheeke feels saponins have much more untapped potential for improving human health.
The saponin-rich yucca extract found in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care is used to protect, purify and naturally care for your skin.
Vitamin C, (Ascorbic Acid)
Quite a bit of research data exists on Vitamin C as a healing element. Human beings, unlike most animals, are unable to make vitamin C within the system and must obtain it from outside sources, such as fresh fruits and vegetables or supplementation. Some food sources of Vitamin C include broccoli, bell peppers, strawberries, lemons, mustard, turnip, and oranges.
Vitamin C helps the body manufacture collagen that helps the skin to maintain elasticity and youthfulness, which is why it is a key ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
Vitamin B1 Hydrochloride , Thiamine HCI
Thiamine (B-1) along with the other B-complex vitamins, enhance the actions of the immune system and the body’s ability to deal with stressful conditions. That’s why they are often called the “anti-stress” vitamins. Like the other B vitamins, B-1 is it not stored in the body so it must be supplied in the diet.
B vitamins help to maintain normal skin function (including functioning of the oil-producing glands which keep skin moist and smooth.) Poor intake of almost any B vitamin can cause dry or scaly skin. Topical application of B vitamins in skin cream is known to help dry irritated skin to heal.
The B-1 in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care helps to feed your skin from the outside, but it is vital that nutrients are consumed in food sources as well. Food sources of Vitamin B-1 include Brewer’s Yeast, nuts, peas, pork, whole wheat breads, oatmeal and sunflower seeds.
Vitis Vinifera Grape Seed Extract (see Grape Seed Oil listed above)
Comfrey Leaf Extract, (Symphytum Officinale)
As far back as 400 BC Comfrey was cultivated for use as a medicinal herb. The ancients used this plant to speed healing of wounds and to treat skin conditions. In folk medicine it was considered excellent for soothing pain and used as a treatment for eczema, psoriasis and acne. It is credited with healing, astringent, emollient (an agent for softening and smoothing the skin), anti-itch and anti-inflammatory properties.
A recent study has pointed to its many phytochemicals as the primary source for these effects.
It is postulated that allantoin (a protein), mucilage (a gelatinous material), rosmarinic acid (antioxidant), and caffeic acid are among the most important constituents responsible for the advanced anti-inflammatory and tissue-regenerating actions of comfrey.
The phytochemical allantoin is known for its stimulation of cell proliferation. The tannins and rosmarinic acid are responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of comfrey. Comfrey root is particularly well documented as a skin growth stimulant when used topically and this is one of the reasons why it is included in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care skin care moisturizer.
Panax Ginseng Root Extract
Ginseng is a legendary and highly valued medicinal herb originally discovered over 5,000 years ago in China. Ginseng has been prized for its powers to stimulate the immune system, enhance blood flow, revitalize glandular functions, reduce stress and remove toxins. Ginseng is often included in skin care products because of its history in helping to regenerate, replenish, moisturize and refresh the skin. As one of the most researched medicinal plants, it is known to be rich in Vitamins B1, B2, B12, Biotin, Niacin and Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5.)
Several studies on animals show that ginseng improves immune function, reduces stress-induced ulceration, provides antioxidant effects, inhibits (induced) tumor formation, and increases the use of oxygen throughout the body. (Ref.19, 20)
A Canadian study (Canadian Medical Association Journal [173, issue 9] October, 2005.) confirmed that North American Ginseng has the potential to modulate natural and acquired immune system responses. Ginseng helps by stimulating killer t-cell production. T cells are specialized immune cells that attack and destroy harmful bacteria and viral infections. This confirms the value of ginseng to assist in bringing relief to those desiring the best possible care for the skin as well as for those suffering dry or difficult skin conditions.
Fennel Fruit Extract, (Foeniculum Vulgare)
While fennel is a plant native to the Mediterranean, it is a very international herb. It was well known to the ancient Greeks and the Romans who spread its use across Europe. Today it is popularly used as an herbal remedy in India, China, Australia and North and South America.
Fennel extract is known to cleanse the blood, help to neutralize toxicity and reduce (physiological) stress. It also contains moisturizing and antibacterial properties and for this reason is an effective addition to InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
A 2004 study found that fennel seeds contain anti-inflammatory, pain relieving (analgesic) and antioxidant properties. (Ref.16) Another study found eight antioxidant compounds isolated and identified in fennel. These compounds show a strong anti-radical scavenging activity that contributes to the commonly known health benefits of fennel. (Ref.17)
Chamomilla Recutita Matricaria Extract
Chamomile is also known for its ability to penetrate many layers of the skin to deliver its life-giving properties of reducing inflammation, soothing, cleansing and regenerating tissue. Since the early 1920s Chamomile has been used in topical form (creams) to treat a wide variety of skin disorders.
A number of German studies have shown that Chamomile applied topically (in a cream) assists eczema. One partially double blind study on atopic eczema found chamomile cream had a mild superiority over hydrocortisone cream and a marginal difference over the placebo. (Ref.8)
A separate study on more than 100 patients suffering from inflammatory dermatitis on hands, forearms and lower legs found that Chamomile alone, topically delivered in a cream form, was equally effective as hydrocortisone in helping to resolve the pain and itching of eczema. (Ref.9)
A study on a small group of patients with derma abrasion found that there was a marked decrease in the weeping of the wound area as well as a decrease in the tendency toward drying of the skin, due to chamomile cream. (Ref.10)
Chamomile is used in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care for its ability to soothe, cleanse and bring new life to skin tissue.
Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Leaf Extract
An ancient book in China’s Chang Dynasty recorded that “green tea is the cure to all.” Modernly, Green Tea has become popular for its ability to reduce or even reverse the unwanted effects of environmental toxins (such as from chemicals and pollution.) Some research reports indicate its usefulness in preventing a variety of skin disorders.
A growing body of studies has demonstrated that green tea’s polyphenols are powerful antioxidants that assist in the healing process. (Ref.18) These “antioxidants” neutralize harmful compounds that attack skin cells. It is thought by modern researchers that using green tea topically can activate its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties to help prevent the onset and growth of skin tumors.
Dr. Stephen Hsu, assistant professor of oral biology and maxillofacial pathology in the MCG Schools of Dentistry and Graduate Studies recently began studying the most abundant polyphenol in green tea called EGCG and found that EGCG reactivates dying skin cells. Dr Hsu noted potential benefits of green tea for skin conditions including eczema in particular.
Green tea is included in InfiniteAloe for its revitalizing, life giving healing properties including the ability to reverse the effects of toxins upon the skin.
Marigold Flower Extract (Calendula Officinalis)
Calendula was originally used medicinally in Egypt. Calendula is famous for its ability to stimulate the growth of new skin cells. It has been used extensively in treating wounds, skin abrasions and infections. Folk medicinal uses include treatments of sores, burns, rashes, varicose veins and fungal infections.
Calendula contains chemicals that have been shown in animal studies to speed up wound-healing by several actions that include: increasing blood flow to the affected area and promoting the production of collagen proteins. Calendula also possesses antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects due to its high content of flavonoids. (Ref.21, 22)
In one small study of about 250 women undergoing radiation therapy after surgery for breast cancer, a calendula ointment reduced the amount of skin irritation better than another commonly used preparation. Women who used the calendula ointment also reported less pain from the radiation. (Ref.23)
Calendula is used in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care for its ability to prevent infections and to bring relief to uncomfortable and difficult skin conditions such as eczema and acne.
Usnea Barbata (Lichen) Extract
Usnea has a long history of use by American herbalists. It is a combination between a fungus and an alga that grows on the bark of hardwood trees in Asia, Europe and North America. Usnea has shown itself effective in microbial activity such as resolving fungus and bacteria infections.
Studies have shown Usnea to be high in anti-oxidants that help to renew cells and prevent cell damage (Ref.24) which is the most immediate reason for its use in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care for the finest in skin care and its benefit for those experiencing difficult skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis or acne.
Vitamin B-3, Niacin
Niacin is so important that, without its life-giving enzymes, more than 200 different metabolic reactions are impaired. Early signs of niacin deficiency are very dry skin, skin eruptions and inflammation of the skin. (A severe deficiency will cause pellagra, which has many symptoms including a reddish skin rash on the face, hands and feet that become rough and dark when exposed to sunlight.) Niacin is essential for beautiful, clear skin and therefore a vital ingredient in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
You should know that Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin and so it must be obtained through the diet. Niacin is abundantly found in animal sources such as lean red meats and organ meats (liver, kidneys) salmon, tuna and lamb. Foods that are niacin rich also include green leafy vegetables and whole-wheat products.
Lecithin is found in egg yolk or soybeans and is well known for its remarkable ability to blend water and oil, resulting in a natural moisturizer, keeping skin soft and reduce cracking and dryness. Lecithin also has the ability to soak deep into the skin and deliver substance to the cellular level and feeds cells with essential nutrients needed for cellular growth.
Methyl Gluceth – 20
Functioning as a water and skin conditioning agent, Methyl Gluceth is a glucose moisturizer, aiding the mixture of water and oil and aiding in retaining water in the skin. It is derived from sugar and corn starch and is known for its ability to safely and mildly open pores and address skin dryness make it especially useful in eczema therapy and for dryness, roughness and itching which is why it is one of the ingredients in InfiniteAloe® Skin Care.
Glycosaminoglycans (GLS) are and important part of connective tissue that influence cell growth and lubricate the jointss. During a certain reaction with water, the GLS becomes a new type of compound that is specifically beneficial for moisturizing and conditioning the skin .
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